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Allergic reactions such as hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) are caused by an oversensitivity or over-reaction of the immune system to a particular allergen. An allergen is a substance that is foreign to the body and which can cause an allergic reaction in certain people. For example, pollen, dander, mold, some germs. In most people, the immune reaction to these foreign substances is normal and appropriate. But in allergic people, it is excessive. For example, in people with hay fever, contact with pollen in the nose, throat and eyes triggers the mast cells there to release much more histamine than normal. This excessive release of histamine produces the associated symptoms of itching, swelling, runny eyes, etc.
Antihistamines work by physically blocking the H1 receptors, stopping histamine from reaching its target. This decreases your body's reaction to allergens and therefore helps to reduce the troublesome symptoms associated with allergy.
Histamine is a chemical naturally produced by various cells in your body. It has a variety of different functions. Large amounts of histamine are made in cells called mast cells, in places where the body comes into contact with the outside environment. For example, in the nose, throat, lungs and skin. Here, mast cells and histamine form part of your immune defence system.
Like most drugs used to treat infectious pathogens, antivirals are targeted to specific strains of viruses and work in a variety of ways. Most antiviral drugs don't actually kill the virus particles themselves as inhibit their reproduction. Since viruses cannot reproduce without infecting a host cell antiviral drugs have been designed to interfere with the infection process.
This interference may be achieved in numerous ways, including blocking the virus from the host cell, preventing the virus from releasing its genetic material once it reaches the nucleus and preventing the virus's genetic data from being spliced into the host cell's DNA. Various highly specific antiviral drugs have also been developed that target the enzymes and proteins that an infected host cell uses to assemble new virus particles and prevent them from functioning correctly. Such drugs must be designed very carefully so that they do not interfere with the metabolism of healthy cells. A final type of antiviral drug targets the virus indirectly, by increasing the efficiency with which the host's immune system can fight the viral infection.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. The word dementia describes a set of symptoms that can include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. During the course of the disease, proteins build up in the brain to form structures called 'plaques' and 'tangles'. This leads to the loss of connections between nerve cells, and eventually to the death of nerve cells and loss of brain tissue. People with Alzheimer's also have a shortage of some important chemicals in their brain. These chemical messengers help to transmit signals around the brain. When there is a shortage of them, the signals are not transmitted as effectively. As discussed below, current treatments for Alzheimer's disease can help boost the levels of chemical messengers in the brain, which can help with some of the symptoms.Alzheimer's is a progressive disease. This means that gradually, over time, more parts of the brain are damaged. As this happens, more symptoms develop.
Anticancer drugs are used to control the growth of cancerous cells.
Cancer is commonly defined as the uncontrolled growth of cells,
with loss of differentiation and commonly, with metastasis,
spread of the cancer to other tissues and organs.
Cancers are malignant growths. In contrast, benign growths
remain encapsulated and grow within a well-defined
area. Drug therapy is used when the tumor has spread, or may spread,
to all areas of the body.Description
Several classes of drugs may be used in cancer treatment,
depending on the nature of the organ involved. For example,
breast cancers are commonly stimulated by estrogens,
and may be treated with drugs that inactivate the sex hormones.
Majority of antineoplastic drugs act by interfering with cell
growth. Since cancerous cells grow more rapidly than other cells,
the drugs target those cells that are in the process of reproducing themselves.
As a result, antineoplastic drugs will commonly affect not only the cancerous cells,
but others cells that commonly reproduce quickly, including hair follicels,
ovaries and testes, and the blood-forming organs.
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HIV is treated with antiretrovirals (ARVs),these work by stopping the virus replicating in the body,
allowing the immune system to repair itself and preventing further damage.
A combination of ARVs is used because HIV can quickly adapt and become resistant to one single ARV.
Patients tend to take three or more types of ARV medication.
This is known as combination therapy or antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Some antiretroviral drugs have been combined into one pill, known as a "fixed dose combination".
This means that the most common treatments for people just diagnosed with HIV involve taking just one or two pills a day.
Immunosuppressant drugs are a class of drugs that suppress or reduce the strength of the body’s immune system. They are also called anti-rejection drugs. One of the primary uses of immunosuppressant drugs is to lower the body’s ability to reject a transplanted organ, such as a liver. By weakening the immune system, immunosuppressant drugs decrease the body’s reaction to the foreign organ. The drugs allow the transplanted organ to remain healthy and free from damage. Immunosuppressant drugs also are used to treat autoimmune diseases such as lupus. An autoimmune disorder is a disease process in which the body attacks its own tissue. Lupus results from just such a misdirected activity of the body’s own immune system. By suppressing this reaction, immunosuppressant drugs can help control the impact of the disease on the body.